Rwanda claims the number 10 spot in the 2013 PPI. Their public administration is bolstered by a strong anti-corruption agency and a robust anti-corruption law, and only 0.4% of respondants indicated corruption was a key impediment to doing business in Rwanda in both 2011 and 2012.
Swaziland has been riddled with political unrest over the past two years after the government infringed on citizens’ constitutional rights. However, the protests culminated in a People’s Congress, and congressional elections will be held this year. Swaziland’s ranking in the Global Corruption Index has slightly deteriorated, falling from 134 out of 142 countries in the 2011/12 to 135 out of 144 countries in 2012/13 rankings. The main challenges faced by businesses are an inefficient bureaucracy, corruption, and access to finance.
Morocco is actively pursuing administrative reforms with the aim of implementing the good governance principles endorsed in the new 2011 constitution, in particular those dealing with the functioning of government, regional and local authorities and other public bodies. “Three priorities underpin the action plan of the ministry of public service and modernisation of the administration: improve the quality and effectiveness of public services; pay greater attention to public opinion; and modernise the management of human resources.”
The new president and government elected in 2012 have taken measures to improve governance, according to African Economic Outlook. They have given special attention to education and health policies, and president Macky Sall restored a limit of two five-year presidential terms when he was elected.
Mali has made important progress in governance in the past few years. The Mo Ibrahim Index of African Governance for Mali increased from 52.9 in 2010 to 55.0 in 2011. Justice is still a major concern for transition authorities, and they plan to continue human rights and anti-corruption reforms.
Tunisia’s political transition has taken longer than expected, with postponed elections and ongoing instability. Although the private sector is benefiting from a more open economy since the revolution, the economy is yet to reap the rewards of this greater openness because of spreading corruption. Still, though the country still struggles with corruption, it remains attractive to investors.
4. South Africa
South Africa ranks below many African countries on the Corruption Perception Index, another popular measure of corruption, but the country is working hard to combat fraud. The treasury issued new regulations in 2012 to combat corruption, requiring departments to submit annual tender programs, limit variations to orders and disclose all directives. In addition, the Congress of South African Trade Unions launched the first independent Corruption Watch to monitor and expose corruption hot spots.
Ghana comes in as the third least corrupt country in Africa. Improved macroeconomic management and enduring political stability, including the successful inauguration of President John Mahama in January 2013, has cemented the country’s reputation as a mature democracy.
Namibia, Africa’s second-least corrupt country, has benefitted from prudent economic policies. They rank among the top countries for doing business with in Africa in 2013, and are consistantly ranked among the top in good governance. An independent anti-corruption agency and an impartial judiciary contribute to the low level of corruption in the country.
Botswana is Africa’s least corrupt country, according to Vision of Humanity’s Positive Peace Index. Botswana observes and enforces ethics for all public servants, and top government officials are required to disclose income and assets and are not immune from prosecution. Botswana ranks at the top of African countries in governance and transparency indices.